A discussion of transition strategies and specific transitional devices.
Contributors:Ryan Weber, Karl Stolley
Last Edited: 2011-02-02 04:32:35
Transitional devices are like bridges between parts of your paper. They are cues that help the reader to interpret ideas a paper develops. Transitional devices are words or phrases that help carry a thought from one sentence to another, from one idea to another, or from one paragraph to another. And finally, transitional devices link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.
There are several types of transitional devices, and each category leads readers to make certain connections or assumptions. Some lead readers forward and imply the building of an idea or thought, while others make readers compare ideas or draw conclusions from the preceding thoughts.
Here is a list of some common transitional devices that can be used to cue readers in a given way.
and, again, and then, besides, equally important, finally, further, furthermore, nor, too, next, lastly, what's more, moreover, in addition, first (second, etc.)
whereas, but, yet, on the other hand, however, nevertheless, on the contrary, by comparison, where, compared to, up against, balanced against, vis a vis, but, although, conversely, meanwhile, after all, in contrast, although this may be true
because, for, since, for the same reason, obviously, evidently, furthermore, moreover, besides, indeed, in fact, in addition, in any case, that is
To Show Exception:
yet, still, however, nevertheless, in spite of, despite, of course, once in a while, sometimes
To Show Time:
immediately, thereafter, soon, after a few hours, finally, then, later, previously, formerly, first (second, etc.), next, and then
in brief, as I have said, as I have noted, as has been noted
definitely, extremely, obviously, in fact, indeed, in any case, absolutely, positively, naturally, surprisingly, always, forever, perennially, eternally, never, emphatically, unquestionably, without a doubt, certainly, undeniably, without reservation
To Show Sequence:
first, second, third, and so forth. A, B, C, and so forth. next, then, following this, at this time, now, at this point, after, afterward, subsequently, finally, consequently, previously, before this, simultaneously, concurrently, thus, therefore, hence, next, and then, soon
To Give an Example:
for example, for instance, in this case, in another case, on this occasion, in this situation, take the case of, to demonstrate, to illustrate, as an illustration, to illustrate
To Summarize or Conclude:
in brief, on the whole, summing up, to conclude, in conclusion, as I have shown, as I have said, hence, therefore, accordingly, thus, as a result, consequently
AP Spanish Vocab
By the time you are sitting down to take the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam in May, you will likely have taken anywhere from two to five years of Spanish classes. Throughout those years, you have learned countless vocabulary words, from the basics of describing yourself to the various food groups and even travel words. Naturally, it is difficult to determine which words are important to know for the exam. Here’s a list of 50 AP Spanish vocabulary words to add to your repertoire to push you one step closer to a 5! Each word is followed by a short example showing how it is used in a natural context.
One of the most daunting aspects of the exam are the two written tasks, but these transition words can be used to strengthen your essays and are a great addition to an AP Spanish vocabulary list.
1. No obstante – nevertheless
- Hay mucha nieve afuera. No obstante, hace calor por dentro.
- There is a lot of snow outside. Nevertheless, it is warm inside.
2. Por lo tanto – therefore
- Quiero obtener un 5 en mi examen de AP Spanish. Por lo tanto voy a estudiar todos los días.
- I want to get a 5 on my AP Spanish exam. Therefore, I will study every day.
3. Desarrollar – to develop
- Planeo desarrollar tres puntos.
- I plan to develop three points.
4. De hecho – in fact
- De hecho, hay muchos cambios en nuestra tecnología.
- In fact, there are a lot of changes in our technology.
5. En cambio – in contrast
- Yo, en cambio, preferiría un gato, no un perro.
- I, in contrast, would prefer a cat, not a dog.
6. En realidad – actually
- En realidad, los cambios no son tan mal.
- In reality, the changes are not that bad.
7. Además – moreover
- Este cuadro tiene muy colores y además es muy expresivo.
- This painting has a lot of colors and moreover is very expressive.
8. En pocas palabras – in short / in a few words
- Quiero contarte la historia en pocas palabras.
- I want to tell you the story in a few words.
9. Por otro lado – on the other hand
- Es una casa bonita. Por otro lado, está en una calle ruidosa.
- It’s a pretty house. On the other hand, it is on a loud street.
10. Por supuesto – of course
- Por supuesto es importante que estudiar.
- Of course it is important to study.
11. Por ejemplo – for example
- Hoy, por ejemplo, el clima está nublado.
- Today, for example, the weather is cloudy.
12. Ambos – both
- Ambos chicos quieren ser doctores.
- Both boys want to be doctors.
13. Igualmente – similarly
- Las dos soluciones son igualmente razonables.
- The two solutions are equally reasonable.
The AP Spanish Language exam is centered around six main themes, and there are certain vocabulary words that are important to know for each.
14. La natalidad – birthrate
- La natalidad no ha cambiado desde tres años.
- The birthrate has not changed for three years.
15. El pronóstico – forecast
- El pronóstico económico para España muestra crecimiento.
- The economic forecast for Spain shows growth.
16. La población – population
- Está estudiando la población de México.
- He is studying the population of Mexico.
17. El desafío – challenge
- El hambre es uno de los desafíos mundiales.
- Hunger is one of the global challenges.
18. Infraestructura – infrastructure
- Es importante que un país construya su infraestructura.
- It is important for a country to build its infrastructure.
Science and Technology
19. Predecir – to predict
- Es difícil predecir los cambios en la ciencia.
- It is difficult to predict changes in science.
20. La informática – computer science
- La informática es un campo en crecimiento.
- Computer science is a growing field.
21. El sitio – website
- El sitio tiene un diseño muy fácil de usar.
- The website has an easy-to-use design.
22. Los avances científicos – scientific advancements
- La salud ha sido ayudado por los avances científicos.
- Healthcare has been helped by scientific advancements.
23. El progreso – progress
- Eso será un verdadero progreso.
- That would be real progress.
24. El crimen – crime
- El crimen es un problema grave de las sociedades modernas.
- Crime is a serious problem in modern societies.
25. El desempleo – unemployment
- Los políticos quieren reducir el desempleo.
- Politicians want to reduce unemployment.
26. Trabajo comunitario – community work
- El grupo de estudiantes está haciendo trabajo comunitario.
- The group of students is doing community work.
27. La pobreza – poverty
- Algunas personas viven en absoluta pobreza.
- Some people live in absolute poverty.
Personal and Public Identities
28. La autoestima – self esteem
- Autoestima aplica no sólo a las mujeres, sino también a los hombres.
- Self esteem applies not only to women, but also to men.
29. Las creencias personales – personal beliefs
- A veces es difícil cambiar las creencias personales.
- Sometimes it is hard to change personal beliefs.
30. El filántropo – philanthropist
- Ella es un filántropo de los derechos humanos.
- She is a philanthropist for human rights.
31. El líder – leader
- El es un líder naturalmente.
- He is a natural leader.
32. La identidad étnica – ethnic identity
- Los mexicanos se preocupan mucho por su identidad étnica.
- Mexicans care a lot about their ethnic identity.
Families and Communities
33. Los valores – values
- No son solamente valores hispanos, son valores universales.
- They are not only Hispanic values, they are universal values.
34. El patrimonio – heritage
- Su patrimonio es muy importante para ella.
- Her heritage is important for her.
35. Las raíces – roots
- Echan raíces en su nuevo comunidad.
- They put down roots in their new community.
36. Portarse bien – behave well
- Los padres deben enseñar a sus hijos a portarse bien.
- Parents must teach their children to behave well.
Beauty and Aesthetics
37. La moda – style
- Cada persona necesita definir su propia moda.
- Every person needs to define their own style.
38. Agraciada – attractive
- Las personas en las revistas son agraciadas.
- The people in the magazines are attractive.
39. El tratamiento – treatment
- Algunas personas buscan tratamientos para el acné.
- Some people look for treatments for acne.
40. La armonía – harmony
- Necesito armonía en mi casa.
- I need harmony in my home.
41. El equilibrio – balance
- Esta pintura tiene un buen equilibrio de luz y oscuridad.
- This painting has a good balance of light and dark.
Tired of using the same verbs every other sentence? Well, guess what? The exam graders are tired of reading the same words paper after paper. Put these verbs on your AP Spanish vocabulary list to add richness and uniqueness to your writing and speaking.
42. Señalar – to point out
- Él señaló su nuevo corte de pelo.
- He pointed out her new haircut.
43. Adquirir – to acquire
- Su tienda adquirió varios libros nuevos.
- Her store acquired various new books.
44. Soler – to be accustomed to
- Yo solí al clima cálido.
- I got accustomed to the warm weather.
45. Merecer – to deserve
- Este logro merece atención especial.
- This accomplishment deserves special attention.
46. Perdurar – to remain
- Cultura rural y antigua perdura en partes de Perú.
- Ancient rural culture remains in parts of Peru.
47. Destacar – to stand out
- Es un hombre que destaca por su altura.
- He is a man who stands out because of his height.
48. Concordar – to agree
- Concordan con la mayoría de la lectura.
- They agree with most of the lecture.
49. Comprobar – to prove
- Es importante comprobar su punto en un ensayo.
- It is important to prove your point in an essay.
50. Ponderar – to analyze
- Él pondera la cuestión durante una hora.
- He analyzed the question for an hour.
This is, of course, by no means an extensive list of words to know, but knowing these words, as well as reviewing crucial culture and grammar points, can put you one step closer to getting the score you want on the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam. Let us know: are there any other words you think are crucial to know?
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