Abortion Research Paper Introduction

Abortion is one ethical issue that falls under the category of ethical issues that are very much problematic to resolve because it coincides with different cultural and religious implications. The discourse on abortion reaches many levels and branches and it is broad in nature. Writing a research paper on abortion requires a recognition of different perspectives in order to build a multifaceted discourse that would be well understood by different kinds of readers.

In starting a research paper on abortion, first, determine on what specific topic about abortion you would want to research on. This may be based on your interest or from reading various literature on abortion. What of these information that you know and you have read about sparks your interest?

Interest is however not enough. A topic needs to be researchable. One cannot actually choose any topic on abortion without examining if it is a good one to research on. When we say a researchable topic, this means that your research questions may be answered by your research. Or that it should be able to be answered within the timeframe of your research.

After you have chosen a topic, you may start coming up with an outline of your research.

Example of an outline

An example outline for your research paper may be the following:

  • Introduction
  • A. Subject matter
    B. Statement of the problem
    C. History of the problem

  • Body
  • Section 1
  • A. Extent of the problem
    B. Related literature (Examples, stories, facts)

  • Section 2
  • A. Cause and Effect
    B. Repercussions in contemporary times

  • Section 3
  • A. Possible solutions

  • Conclusion
  • A. Relate back to intro
    B. Restate thesis

Example of a good thesis statement for abortion research paper

A thesis or hypothesis is the researcher’s perception on the result of the study. This is based on the knowledge, observations or other study results.

Examples may be:

  • The reason why women resort to abortion is mostly because they are not prepared for the pregnancy.
  • Most of the people resorting to abortion are teenagers.
  • Most women who go on abortion do the act by themselves.
  • The most common method used by women in abortion is by taking abortifacients.

Example of an introduction to an abortion research paper

Abortion is the termination of pregnancy before it is viable, usually before the pregnancy is before its 25th week. There are two types of abortion, spontaneous and induced. Spontaneous abortion is one which occurs naturally due to some complications during pregnancy or due to trauma occurring to the mother or the fetus. An induced abortion is one which was done intentionally. More and more teenagers opt to undergo induced abortion in the US. Trends in the number of abortions by females aged 13 to 18 show a significant increase from 2015 to 2016 ( this should be supported by statistical data from reliable source/s).

To be able to know why teenagers resort to this practice, the study has the following specific questions:

  • Determine the circumstances that lead to the pregnancy.
  • Determine the reasons why the respondents opted to terminate their pregnancy.
  • Identify the methodology they used to terminate their pregnancy.

How to write body paragraphs for a research paper on abortion

The body of the paper covers the methodology and the results from the data gathering. Paragraphs on the methodology part may be subdivided into: methodology to be used; how to do data gathering using the methodology; the number of respondents needed in the study and a description of the respondents; and how long the data gathering will be done.

For the results and discussion, the paragraphs may contain a little introduction on the general findings and then each paragraph will contain the answer to each question asked in the interview or survey and the results of the survey or interview. This is followed by an interpretation of the data gathered.

Tips on body writing

  • Determine the number of respondents that you need. Take only a few sample from the total number of possible respondents. A good number will help you get a good data and also save you time.
  • Research on good methodologies to be used that matches the type of research you are using. Some questions are answered by surveys, some by interviews and some by observations.
  • Provide statistical data as well as observations on your presentation of data. If some of the respondents have stated something you know is good to include on the paper, then include it on the paper.
  • Be truthful with what you will write on the results even if it is different from what you have expected. You shouldn’t also plagiarize and provide proper citations if you need to support your findings with other researches from other authors. This is one of the ethics of research writing.
  • If you used many different methods and you have a lot of data, divide these per theme and then present it per theme to make your data presentation organized.

Example of the 1st body paragraph

For the first body paragraph on the presentation of data one may write the following:

There are various circumstances that lead to the pregnancy of the respondents, most answers were because of curiosity. However, some of the respondents got pregnant because of rape. In a nutshell, there is a number of other reasons among the most widespread.

Example of the 2nd body paragraph

There are various reasons that made the respondents opt to have their pregnancy terminated. Most of the answers are due to reasons that they are not yet ready for the pregnancy. Based on national statistics from a research done by (mention author and year), most females aged 13-17 terminate their pregnancy also due to the same reason.

Example of the 3rd body paragraph

The methodologies used by the respondents to terminate their pregnancy were the use of abortifacients by their own, going to a licensed medical practitioner, going to an unlicensed abortionist and doing it on their own by the help of a friend or partner. Most of them opted for the use of abortifacients. Most of them said that it is easy to buy such medicine online. Some respondents also sought medical help and a few respondents did the termination by themselves.

How to finish a research paper on abortion

To finish a research paper, write a concluding paragraph. This summarizes the findings, also still answering the research questions.

Tips on conclusion writing

In writing a conclusion, a writer may write one paragraph that summarizes all the findings. Make sure that the main answer to each research question should be stated in the conclusion. A student may write one or two sentence/s to provide an answer to each of the research question.

Example of a conclusion

From data gathered on the research paper, the main reason that leads to the pregnancy among teenage females in the US is because of curiosity. The main reason, on the other hand of terminating the pregnancy, is because they are not yet ready to face parental responsibilities. Thus, there should be a huge work done to inform teenage females about all negative impacts of interrupting pregnancy so to ensure that abortion was a well-thought-out decision.

Tips on research paper revision

Revising a research paper will be less taxing than starting one. The following should be taken note of.

  • Take note on the revisions suggested by the editor or adviser and do those revisions first.
  • Do revisions per section or per chapter so it will be easier.
  • Read more on additional sources that might be helpful for revisions.
  • Check your grammar as well when doing the revisions.
  • Read the write-up thoroughly after the revision to check if the flow is still well even after adding up more information.
  • It is also helpful to ask somebody to read your paper to check if it is understood by the reader and also to help proofread the paper.

Introduction
There have been an increasing number of abortion cases throughout the world. This scenario has been fuelled by among other factors social and economic factors. Abortion is the termination of pregnancy. It is the removal of the foetus before it is viable. It is usually done before the foetus gets to 25 weeks old. It is either spontaneous or induced abortion. Abortion refers to the induced type (Malcolm 1977 page 12).

In developed countries, abortion is legal whereas most developing countries do not encourage and permit abortion. This brings about the differences in safe and unsafe abortions. Abortion accounts for over 70,000 maternal deaths worldwide.

Abortion has a long history. In the past, it was done using crude tools such as sharpened tools, physical trauma and other traditional methods. With advancement in the field of medicine, contemporary methods are now used and involve the use of medication and surgical procedures (Nada 1998 page 61).

Each country in the world has different legality, cultural and religious statuses and prevalence of abortion. The ethical principles towards abortion and removal of pregnancies also vary. Countries such as the United States of America and Britain have heated politics surrounding the issue of abortion in pro-life and pro-choice campaigns (Ted 1995 page 66). These are based on the argument that for one group, it should be legalized and for the other, abortion should not. Most governments in the developed countries have legalized abortion. Many developing and underdeveloped countries have not legalized abortion and have no control over what is done by the medical personnel.

Abortion and childbirth complications have been the leading causes of maternal deaths the world over. With the advent of the 21st century, maternal deaths have declined. This has been attributed to education on family planning as well as the use of contraceptives.

Discussion
Induced abortion
A third of pregnancies occurring in the world today are unintended. A fifth of these pregnancies end up in induced abortion. Induced abortion is the forceful removal of the foetus from the womb of the mother. The gestation age of the foetus is the determining factor of what procedures could be used to conduct the abortion. The procedure is also limited by the legality of abortion in that country, doctor patient preference and the regional availability of such services.

Induced abortion is either therapeutic or elective. Therapeutic abortion is done by medical personnel in an effort to save the lives of patients. Patients suffering from such things as illnesses, multiple pregnancies and complications could have this procedure done on them to avoid having complications at childbirth that may lead to loss of life (World health organisation 1979 page 16). Elective abortion is done at the request of the woman. This is usually done for non-medical reasons.

Spontaneous
It is commonly referred to as miscarriages. They are unintentional. They usually occur before the 20th and 24th week. Many pregnancies are usually lost before doctors are aware of the presence of an embryo in the uterus. Spontaneous abortion is caused by chromosomal abnormalities, vascular diseases, diabetes, infections, uterus abnormalities and trauma among others (Isabel 1992 page 123). The most frequent causes of spontaneous abortion are age and a history of spontaneous abortions. Accidents and trauma have also been linked with the high rates of miscarriages among women.

Causes of abortion
Abortion is caused by a myriad of factors among them social, religious and economic factors.
The society’s desire for convenience has been a factor influencing the rates of abortion. Children and pregnancy are seen as a hindrance to a lot of fun and pleasure. One would easily remove the pregnancy in pursuit of this pleasure. The society accepts this circumstance and even encourages it by allowing governments to legalize abortion.

The lack for respect for life is a religious factor towards promoting abortion. People no longer appreciate new life forms. One would not think twice before doing an abortion. Raging debates have come up suggesting that a foetus is not a life form until it is born. Such debates could easily change people’s mindsets to disregard life.

Economic issues including poverty and insufficient funding have promoted abortion. Many young mothers have opted to do an abortion citing the inability to take care of the child once it is born. Usually such young girls do not have an income to support themselves leave the unborn child.

Stigma has contributed a lot in ensuring that abortion becomes a common thing. Girls who get pregnant while still very young get criticism especially in the developing countries. In most cultures, such a thing was unheard of. It was unheard of for one to get a child outside marriage. If one would have such a child, she would be excommunicated. Developing countries have not fully come out of this and girls who get pregnant whilst young are looked upon as ill-mannered individuals.

Rape has been a big reason why people abort their children. When rape has occurred, and one does not intend to keep the pregnancy, she would choose not to keep the baby. The experience of being raped is too big a burden that the evidence of such an ordeal in the form of a child would not be acceptable. Many girls would quickly abort to rid themselves of this psychological trauma.

Young girls have a better chance at furthering their education once they get rid of the child. In African countries for instance, a young girl getting pregnant meant that she would have to be married off immediately. This would ruin her chances of ever getting formal education again. Getting rid of the baby provides an easier way out in the quest for education and a brighter future.

Methods used in abortion
There are two main methods used during abortions i.e. use of the abortion pill and surgical removal.

The abortion pill is used for pregnancies up to nine weeks old. A combination of two drugs is taken. They are taken within 48 hours. The effect of the drugs is that the womb contracts and sheds its lining. The process is painful. This pain is experienced on the lower abdomen. It may cause diarrhea and vomiting.

Surgical removal can be done when the foetus is at 13 to 14 weeks. A sterile tube is inserted through the cervix and into the uterus. Suction is done pulling out all the materials in the uterus. The woman may leave the hospital the same day after the procedure has been done. At 14 and 15 weeks, surgical dilation is done using forceps to remove the unwanted foetus.

Complications of abortion
The most common is bleeding. Bleeding occurs normally for a few weeks. It decreases as one nears weeks 5 and 6. In cases of excessive bleeding, there are chances that the uterus may not have been emptied completely.

Pelvic inflammatory disease. This disease affects the vaginal area. The vagina produces an unpleasant vaginal discharge. The body temperature of the individual rises, and she experiences severe abdominal pains. Inflammation may happen in the womb due to emptying problems (Shirleen 2003 page 40). It may be caused because the womb had not been completely emptied. This would require that a new evacuation be done for the woman.

Pain is a normal problem for the abortion process. It is often relieved by using painkillers. In instances where there is excessive pain, one should consult the doctor to have her uterus rechecked.

The uterus may be punctured especially during surgical termination of pregnancy. The tools used may create a hole in the uterus causing complications. Such a patient is kept in the hospital for observation and check up (Bodo 1998 page 159).

Advantages
Abortion gives a chance to young women especially those below the age of 21 years to pursue their education. A young girl caught in a situation where she has to carry the child to term will mean that she cannot do anything else. She would have to stop learning at some point to address the needs of the child. Most likely, she would have to stop schooling all together to take care of the child. By getting rid of the foetus, she is able to continue pursuing her educational needs.

Abortion has been of help to women with health issues. Women with diseases such as heart disease, hypertension and sickle cell anemia have been able to avoid serious medical complications that arise from childbirth through abortions. Such complications could easily lead to loss of life. Usually a doctor may prescribe such a procedure when he realizes that the life of the mother is in danger.

Abortion gives women identity. In the chauvinistic societies, women have no power at all over their reproductive sense. The inculcation of abortion into laws and codes of ethics has helped the women by giving them power over their sexuality.

Abortion has been used to control family size. Young motherhood is easily avoided through abortion. A woman may choose to have an abortion to prevent her from becoming a mother at a very tender age.

Parents have used abortion as a way to reduce the number of children that they may get. Parents have used this to trim the numbers of children. They would discuss whether they wanted the baby or not and would remove it in case they do not want it. This helps regulate the number of children and aids in family planning.

Rape victims have found solace in the fact that they could easily remove such children that would arise from such action. Rape victims would not want to keep the baby because of psychological trauma that they would associate this child to. Removal of the child would remain the best option to end this.

Disadvantages
Abortion indicates brutality to the unborn child. This is because abortion is killing. It does not give the new foetus a chance to survive. It is hinged on religion, which condemns the act saying that all are equal before the almighty. The spiritual books go against the very idea of abortion.

Abortion encourages infidelity by women. Women would engage in sexual acts outside the marriage context with the view that they would remove such fetuses if they happened to implant themselves in their uterus. Once a woman gets pregnant, she would easily remove the pregnancy and continue with her life.

Abortion has the potential of lessens chances of a woman getting a child later in life. Abortion interferes with the uterine wall. At other instances, it may lead to total damage of the uterus. This would result in bareness hence a woman would not get a child when she needs it later in her life. Such actions may also cause hormonal imbalances that could be attributed to the barren nature of the women later in their lives.

Abortion promotes irresponsible behavior. This is because it gives women and men alike the freedom to commit careless sexual activities. This is because they know that they could easily get rid of the pregnancy if they so wish to. This freedom makes them care less about their sexuality.

Concurrent abortions may lead to medical complications. Some of these complications include uterine infections, recurrent miscarriages and sepsis among others. Consistent use of such methods causes the hormones to change. This means that the hormones are tuned to a program where they cannot sustain a full pregnancy to term. The body gets used to rejecting any pregnancy hence the case of consistent miscarriages may pop up.

Abortion may end up causing psychological impairments. Examples of this include depression and guilt. Some women may feel depressed after losing their baby. This could be the case especially, if the child was their first and the abortion was done as a medical thing that they had no control over. Continuous miscarriages may cause such individuals stress and eventual depression. This would ultimately affect the biology of the mother affecting the subsequent pregnancies. This is because the brain would have been tuned to reject any pregnancies due to such depression.

Alternatives to abortion
Churches, nongovernmental organisations and the government run campaigns against abortion. In such campaigns, they ask mothers to look for other options other than abortion. Some of these options include adoption as well as being provided with the necessary help to enable them carry the pregnancy to term.

Adoption is a widely used practice in many countries. It involves the transfer of ownership of a child to other parents who would love to take care of it. The child is usually given to adopting parents because the mother could not afford to raise him or would love to pursue other things. Adoption is an option that comes in handy because the mother is relieved of all duties about the child as it is taken up by a different family. The mother is assured that the child would be safe with the adopting parents. The mother can then go through with her plans without the child getting in the way.

Providing support to such mothers is another option that has been explored. Nongovernmental organisations and church groups have come together to pull resources to support such young mothers through their pregnancy. They have also been of importance in supporting them as they take care of the child. They support them with such things as financial resources and psychological counseling.

Conclusion
Abortion is a social, medical and a religious issue. It is entrenched into the legal laws of every country in the world in one way or another. It has a place in the lives of individuals directly or indirectly. Ethical values arise out of such deeds as abortion that determines the direction that one chooses. Other mechanisms that control abortion include the legal and religious aspects of society.

Providing the necessary support in the form of financial aid and psychological support to mothers contemplating abortion could serve as the best way to curb such deaths resulting from abortion.

There are advantages and disadvantages of abortion of almost equal measure. Abortion presents a double-edged sword in its advantages and disadvantages to individuals and society. It should be after careful consideration that abortion should be done (Patricia 1992 page 93).

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