Inevitable Abortion Definition Essay

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3. Chamberlain G. Nomenclature: what is your name?BMJ 1997;314:1684

4. Lee E, editor. Abortion law and politics today. London: Macmillan, 1998:5–94

5. Franklin S, Lury C, Stacey J, editors. Off Centre: feminism and cultural studies. London: Harper Collins Academic, 1991:129–218

6. Oakley A. A history lesson: ultrasound in obstetrics. In: Oakley A, editor. , ed. Essays on women, medicine and health. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993:189–97

7. Oakley A. The captured womb: history of the medical care of pregnant women. Oxford: Blackwell, 1984

8. Lee E. Abortion, motherhood, and mental health: medicalizing reproduction in the United States and Great Britain. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 2003

9. Layne L. Motherhood lost: a feminist account of pregnancy loss in America. New York: Routledge, 2003: 9–40

10. Layne L. A women's health model for pregnancy loss: a call for a new standard of care. Feminist Studies 2006;32:573–600

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12. Stoddart PGP, Houlton M. Reported management of threatened miscarriage by general practitioners in Wessex. BMJ 1987;295:998

13. Entwistle CC, Bowell PJ, Tovey LAD. Reported management of threatened miscarriage by general practitioners in Wessex. BMJ 1987;295:998

14. Regan L. Recurrent miscarriage. BMJ 1991;302:543–4 [PMC free article][PubMed]

15. Lewis PJ. Recurrent miscarriage. BMJ 1991;302:1078. [PMC free article][PubMed]

16. MacLean MA, Wilson R, Walker JJ. Recurrent abortion. BMJ 1991;302:909. [PMC free article][PubMed]

17. Lawrence RA. Use of the word “abortion”. BMJ 1988;296:792.

18. Perera WSE. Management of cases of abortion. BMJ 1961;1:705. [PMC free article][PubMed]

19. Bender S. Bleeding in early pregnancy. BMJ 1964;1:1093–6 [PMC free article][PubMed]

20. Robinson HP. The diagnosis of early pregnancy failure by sonar. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1975;82:849–57 [PubMed]

21. Duff GB. Prognosis in threatened abortion: a comparison: between predictions made by sonar, urinary hormone assays and clinical judgement. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1975;82:858–62 [PubMed]

22. Duff GB, Evans JJ, Legge M. A study of investigations used to predict outcome of pregnancy after threatened abortion. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1980;87: 194–8 [PubMed]

23. Mantoni M, Pederson JF. Intrauterine haematoma an ultrasonic study of threatened abortion. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1981;88:47–51 [PubMed]

24. Anderson RS, Phillips PJ. Routine real-time scanning at the first hospital visit. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1982;89:16–19 [PubMed]

25. Wilson RD, Kendrick V, Wittmann BK, et al. Risk of spontaneous abortion in ultrasonically normal pregnancies. Lancet 1984;2:920–1 [PubMed]

26. Christiaens GCM, Stoutenbeek Ph. Spontaneous abortion in proven intact pregnancies. Lancet 1984;2:571–2 [PubMed]

27. Everett C, Ashurst H, Chalmers I. Reported management of threatened miscarriage by general practitioners in Wessex. BMJ 1987;295:583–6 [PMC free article][PubMed]

28. Haxton MJ, Bell J. Fetal anatomical abnormalities and other associated factors in middle-trimester abortion and their relevance to patient counselling. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1983;90:501–6 [PubMed]

29. Mills AM. An assessment of pre-operative microbial screening on the prevention of post-abortion pelvic inflammatory disease. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1984;91: 182–6 [PubMed]

30. Pickering RM, Forbes JF. Risks of preterm delivery and small-for-gestational age infants following abortion: a population study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1985;92:1106–12 [PubMed]

31. Evans DR. Neural-tube defects: importance of a history of abortion in aetiology. BMJ 1979;1:975.–[PMC free article][PubMed]

32. MacHenry JCRM, Nevin NC, Merret JD. Comparison of central nervous system malformations in spontaneous abortions in Northern Ireland and south-east England. BMJ 1979;1:1395.–[PMC free article][PubMed]

33. Kline J, Shrout P, Stein Z, et al. Drinking during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. Lancet 1980;2:176–80 [PubMed]

34. Harlap S, Shiono PH. Alcohol, smoking, and incidence of spontaneous abortions in the first and second trimester. Lancet 1980;2:173–6 [PubMed]

35. Firkin BG, Howard MA, Radford N. Possible relationship between lupus inhibitor and recurrent abortion in young women. Lancet 1980;2:366. [PubMed]

36. Lubbe WF, Butler WS, Palmer SJ, et al. Fetal survival after prednisolone suppression of maternal lupus-anticoagulant. Lancet 1983;1:1361.–[PubMed]

37. Beard RW, Capel K. A better environment for women in labour. Lancet 1985;2:1059. [PubMed]

38. Beard RW, Braude P, Mowbray JF, et al. Protective antibodies and spontaneous abortion. Lancet 1983;2:1090. [PubMed]

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40. Woodroffe C. Miscarriage or abortion. Lancet 1985;2:1245

41. White M. Late abortions and the law. BMJ 1988;296:715–16 [PMC free article][PubMed]

42. Hutchon DJR, Cooper S. Terminologyfor early pregnancy loss must be changed. BMJ 1998;317:1081. [PMC free article][PubMed]

43. Ankum WM, Wieringa-de Waard M, Bindels PJ. Management of spontaneous miscarriage in the first trimester: an example of putting informed shared decision making into practice. BMJ 2001;322:1343. [PMC free article][PubMed]

44. Sotiriadis A, Papatheodorou S, Makrydimas G. Threatened miscarriage: evaluation and management. BMJ 2004;329:152. [PMC free article][PubMed]

45. Thapar AK, Thapar A. Psychological sequelae of miscarriage: a controlled study using the general health questionnaire and the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Br J Gen Pract 1992;42:94–6 [PMC free article][PubMed]

46. Wong MK, Crawford TJ, Gask L, et al. A qualitative investigation into women's experiences after a miscarriage: implications for the primary healthcare team. Br J Gen Pract 2003;53:697–702 [PMC free article][PubMed]

47. Freeling P, Gask L. Sticks and stones: changing terminology is no substitute for good consultation skills. BMJ 1998;317:1028. [PMC free article][PubMed]

48. Simmons RK, Singh G, Maconochie N, et al. Experience of miscarriage in the UK: qualitative findings from the National Women's Health Study. Soc Sci Med 2006;63:1934–46 [PubMed]

49. Geller PA, Psaros C, Kornfield SL. Satisfaction with pregnancy loss aftercare: are women getting what they want?Arch Womens Ment Health 2010;13:111–24 [PubMed]

50. Moscrop A. Scans, misogyny, and miscarriage. BMJ 2011;343:d7960. [PubMed]

51. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage: diagnosis and initial management in early pregnancy of ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage. (Clinical guideline 154.) 2012.[PubMed]



is the increase in theaverage temperatureof Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th centuryand its projected continuation.According to the 2007Fourth Assessment Reportby theIntergovernmentalPanel on Climate Change(IPCC), global surface temperature increased0.74 ± 0.18 °C(1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the 20th century.


Most of the observedtemperature increase since the middle of the 20th century has beencausedbyincreasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, which result fromhumanactivitysuch as the burning of fossil fuelanddeforestation.



Global dimming, aresult of increasing concentrations of atmosphericaerosolsthat block sunlightfrom reaching the surface, has partially countered the effects of warming inducedby greenhouse gases.Climate modelprojections summarized in the latest IPCC report indicate that theglobal surfacetemperatureis likely to rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C(2.0 to11.5 °F) during the 21st century.


The uncertainty in this estimate arises from theuse of models with differingsensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrationsand theuse of differingestimates of future greenhouse gas emissions. An increase inglobal temperature will causesea levels to riseand will change the amount andpattern of precipitation, probably including expansion of subtropicaldeserts.


Warming is expected to bestrongest in the Arcticand would be associatedwith continuingretreat of glaciers,permafrostandsea ice. Other likely effectsinclude more frequent and intenseextreme weather events,species extinctions,and changes inagricultural yields. Warming and related changes will vary fromregion to region around the globe, though the nature of these regional variationsis uncertain.


As a result of contemporary increases in atmospheric carbondioxide, the oceans have becomemore acidic, a result that is predicted tocontinue.


While thescientific consensusis that human activity contributes significantly toglobal warming


,there is an ongoingpoliticalandpublicdebate over whether thecosts of mitigation outweigh the risks of inaction. TheKyotoProtocolis aimed at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration to prevent a"dangerous anthropogenic interference".


As of November 2009,187 states hadsigned and ratifiedthe protocol.


Proposed responses to climate change includemitigationto reduceemissions,adaptationto the effects of global warming, andgeoengineeringtoremove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or block incoming sunlight.

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